Savannah is a word
that describes a grassland area without forest floors. At the high plateau of North Africa lies the most extensive
vegetation belt. There are three major belts that conclude the Savannah Desert: the Guinea Savannah, the Sudan Savannah,
and the Sahel Savannah.
The Guinea Savannah
is located in the middle of Africa. It is the most extensive belt. It covers almost half of the Savannah Desert. It continues
from uncommonly visited states in the south beyond Zaria in Kaduna State. This belt consists of tall grasses and trees in
the south and shorter trees and grasses in the north.
The Sudan Savannah
vegetation belt is found towards the north-west. It stretches from the Sokoto plains in the west through the northern
sections of the central highland. It spans almost all entire northern states bordering the Niger Republic. The low amount
of rainfall (less than 1000mm) and the drawn out dry season (6-9 months) sustain fewer trees and shorter grasses.
The Sahel Savannah
vegetation belt lies to the north of Nigeria. It is located in the north-eastern part of Africa, close to Lake Chad, where
the dry season lasts for up to 9 months and the total annual rainfall is hardly up to 700mm. Very short grasses, not more
than one meter high, characterize it. The area is dominated by several varieties of the acacia and date- palms. The Lake Chad
basin, with its seasonally flooded undulating plains, supports a few tall trees.